The first Slovak geographers would regularly participate in meetings and other events organized by Czechoslovak Geographical Society, dating back to 1894. In 1946 the branch in Bratislava was established named the Slovak Geographic Society led by Jan Hromádka.

The development of Slovak geography as a science, its wider penetration into the school system on all levels, and the continuous growth of personal background were the basic premises for the formation of independent geographical society. In 1955 the preparatory committee started to work (Mikuláš Koncek, Michal Lukniš a Ján Hanzlík) and on December 8th in 1955 the constitutive meeting of the Slovak Geographic Society under Slovak Academy of Sciences took place in Bratislava. Michal Lukniš had been elected the first chairman of the society.

In 1959 the first regional branch was established – the East Slovakian subsidiary in Prešov. The first meeting of the society took place in Bratislava in 1959. At this time the society registered 175 members. In the following period, further regional branches were established – the West Slovakian in Bratislava (in 1965) and the Central Slovakian in Banská Bystrica (in 1966). Furthermore, in 1960 the speleological branch was founded seating in Liptovský Mikuláš. The society had 372 members in 1967. The members would regularly meet at general assembly within the congress. Until now there took place 14 meetings (since 1998 they are called congresses) – in 1959, 1961 and 1991 in Bratislava, in 1964 in Košice, in 1967 in Liptovský Mikuláš, in 1970, 1986 and 2006 in Banská Bystrica, in 1974 and 2002 in Nitra, in 1978 in Levice, in 1982 and 1998 in Prešov and in 1994 in Castá. At the head of the society were Michal Lukniš (1955-1970), Pavol Plesník (1970-1974), Emil Mazúr (1974-1978), Ján Drdoš (1978-1986, 1990-1992), Oliver Bašovský (1986-1990), Michal Zatko (1992-1998), Jozef Mládek (1998-2006) and René Matlovic (since 2006).

At present there are eight geography workplaces (university departments and 1 research institute) representing the base of the Slovak geography in the six centres (Bratislava, Prešov, Banská Bystrica, Nitra, Košice and Ružomberok). Nowadays the Slovak Geographic Society has 300 geographers. It has five regional branches (Bratislava, the West Slovakian, the Central Slovakian, the East Slovakian, and Košice) and the three specialised committees (theoretical geography, applied geography, and school geography). Every four years the society organizes the congress, which includes the general assembly, the supreme body of the society. The last congress was in Banská Bystrica and the forthcoming congress is going to be held in Košice in 2010. The Slovak Geographical Society will organize the next EUGEO congress, which is going to be held in Bratislava in 2009.